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  “普及金融的研究者,原認為社會地位低下和貧窮 是主要的排拒因素,現在必須也考慮網絡連接 和數碼科技掌握能力等較廣闊層面的因素。
 Samuel LAW Sau Wai
Senior Lecturer at Hong Kong Shue Yan University
PhD candidate (part time) in the Faculty of Law at University of Hong Kong
 Davyd WONG
Special Counsel at YTL LLP Founder and Director of Pro Bono HK, a local charity
梁延達律師事務所有限法律責任 合夥顧問律師 本地慈善機構「公益法香港」始創 人及理事
 some of the market strategies common among technology companies. This includes aggressively growing market share with a view to locking customers into an “ecosystem”; the virtual equivalent of a “walled garden”. Customer acquisition is conducted not only through seamless software integration between non-banking service apps and banking features, but also by offering incentives for existing users to sign up and use the partnership services virtual banks have established. This approach concentrates the competition for customers towards those who already have high levels of access to financial services. If these arrangements propagate to such an extent, it could become more expensive or difficult to make banking transactions between different virtual banks or competing joint venture businesses, this could ultimately limit competition between virtual banks. It could also reduce inclusion to small circles formed among different segmental groups of customers. The interplay between the joint venture parties deserves further scrutiny to establish how a non- banking joint venture partner could influence a virtual bank's business model.
Pathways for future regulatory focus
Financial inclusion, while originally focused on disadvantage and poverty as the driver of exclusion, must now also encompass the broader issues around access and digital technology capabilities. These observations lead to the
need for greater regulatory focus in three areas. First,
the need to enhance transparency and disclosure of the technology involved in virtual bank operations, both
from the perspective of who do and do not have access. Second, greater scrutiny on the bank-customer relationship under the new interaction model is required. Finally, a closer examination on the consequences of merging of
the traditional banking and technology business models, especially the potential negative impact on customer mobility and competition. Sharper attention to these three areas could be the essential elements which ensure virtual banks can make meaningful strides towards fulfilling the promised goal of financial inclusion. BT
「 生 態 系 統 」內 ,亦 即 虛 擬 的 封 閉 平 台 。吸 納 客 戶的方式,不僅包括在軟件上把非銀行服務應 用程式與銀行服務無縫結合,也靠提供誘因, 吸引現有客戶加入,使用虛擬銀行已建立的夥 伴服務。這做法使競爭集中在經常使用金融服 務的客戶身上。若這種安排變得越來越普遍, 不同虛擬銀行或有競爭的合資業務之間的銀 行交易或會變得更昂貴、更困難,最終限制虛 擬銀行之間的競爭,這也會使虛擬銀行的服務 範圍限制在不同組別客戶的小圈子內。合資各 方之間的相互作用值得進一步詳細研究,以了 解合資機構中的非銀行夥伴可如何影響虛擬 銀行的商業模式。
普及金融的研究者,原認為社會地位低下和貧 窮是主要的排拒因素,現在必須也考慮網絡連 接和數碼科技掌握能力等較廣闊層面的因素。 從以上觀察可見,有需要注重以下三方面的監 管工作。首先是提升透明度,披露虛擬銀行營運 所涉的科技,包括哪些人可以連接服務,哪些人 不可以。其次是更仔細研究新互動模式下銀行 與客戶的關係。最後,須深入探討傳統銀行營運 模式和科技商業模式結合的後果,特別是對客 戶流動性和競爭可能產生的不利影響。必須仔 細處理這三方面的工作,才可確保虛擬銀行健 康發展,達到最初承諾的普及金融的目標。BT

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